CLEANING CHEMICALS

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion or the body’s ability to use insulin.

Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas. This release of insulin promotes the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more a result of insulin resistance (cells not being able to use insulin effectively or at all. It was formerly known as adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes

What is prediabetes? How is it treated?

Prediabetes is the term used to describe elevated blood sugar (glucose) that has not yet reached the level for a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. It can be treated by lifestyle changes such as consuming a healthy diet, weight loss, and regular exercise.

What is the treatment for diabetes?

The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels.

Type 1 diabetes is treated with:

•             insulin,

•             exercise, and a

•             type 1 diabetes diet.

Type 2 diabetes is treated:

•             First with weight reduction, a type 2 diabetes diet, and exercise

•             Diabetes medications (oral or injected) are prescribed when these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars of type 2 diabetes.

•             If other medications become ineffective treatment with insulin may be initiated.

Medications for type 2 diabetes

Note that these medications used to treat type 2 diabetes are typically not used in pregnant or breastfeeding women. At present the only recommended way of controlling diabetes in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding is by diet, exercise, and insulin therapy. You should speak with your health-care professional if you are taking these medications, are considering becoming pregnant, or if you have become pregnant while taking these medications.

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Medications for type 2 diabetes are designed to

1.            increase insulin output by the pancreas,

2.            decrease the amount of glucose released from the liver,

3.            increase the sensitivity (response) of cells to insulin,

4.            decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine, and

5.            slow emptying of the stomach, thereby delaying nutrient digestion and absorption in the small intestine.

A preferred drug can provide more than one benefit (for example, lower blood sugar and control cholesterol). Varying combinations of medications can control diabetes. Not every patient with type 2 diabetes will benefit from every drug, and not every drug is suitable for each patient.

The medications for type 2 diabetes fall into specific classes based upon the way they work to achieve control of blood sugar. These drug classes include:

Medications for type 2 diabetes

Note that these medications used to treat type 2 diabetes are typically not used in pregnant or breastfeeding women. At present the only recommended way of controlling diabetes in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding is by diet, exercise, and insulin therapy. You should speak with your health-care professional if you are taking these medications, are considering becoming pregnant, or if you have become pregnant while taking these medications.

Medications for type 2 diabetes are designed to

1.            increase insulin output by the pancreas,

2.            decrease the amount of glucose released from the liver,

3.            increase the sensitivity (response) of cells to insulin,

4.            decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine, and

5.            slow emptying of the stomach, thereby delaying nutrient digestion and absorption in the small intestine.

A preferred drug can provide more than one benefit (for example, lower blood sugar and control cholesterol). Varying combinations of medications can control diabetes. Not every patient with type 2 diabetes will benefit from every drug, and not every drug is suitable for each patient.

The medications for type 2 diabetes fall into specific classes based upon the way they work to achieve control of blood sugar. These drug classes include: